Definition Momentum : Momentum is a vector quantity. It is normally denoted by the letter ‘p’.
So momentum,p= mass(m) x velocity(v) =m * v. The unit of momentum is Kg m/s in MKS and g cm/s in CGS system.
Law of conservation of momentum states that momentum is a conserved quantity like energy.Conserved quantity means that in a closed system, the total momentum is constant.What does a closed system term specifies? Closed system is that system which is not affected by any outside or external forces.
Law of conservation of momentum is originally modulated from Newton’s second law of motion. The application level of law of conservation of momentum is seen in electrodynamics, quantum mechanics, quantum field theory and general relativity.Now let’s go in detail about what exactly does the law of conservation of momentum states in our every day life experiences. For a collision occurring between object 1 and object 2 in a closed system, the total momentum of the two objects before the collision is equal to the total momentum of the two objects after the collision. That is, the momentum lost by object 1 is equal to the momentum gained by object 2.
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For example, if a bus hits a car which was still, the car goes flying with the bus until they stop. The bus gave the car momentum by slamming into it or in other words, the bus gave the car velocity. When the car was still it had no momentum, when the bus hit onto it, it began to move and thus gained the momentum, the bus lost. The bus lost momentum because it was forced to slow down due to the impact.
Further getting deeper into the topic we find that more the mass or velocity more will be the momentum. Suppose both bus and car had same velocity, then it would be difficult to stop a bus than the car as the bus has more mass.It is this simple comprehensive approach of the law of conservation of momentum which had made in application in traffic laws.That’s one of the reason a heavy vehicle or the one carrying load is given side or first priority in a crossing or in steep road. As the vehicle is heavy the driver may find it very difficult to stop it or slow down it immediately. Hence care is taken in order to avoid accidents.
To put it briefly the law of conservation of momentum states that if a body A of mass m1 and initial velocity u1 collides with a body B of mass m2 and initial velocity u2, and let after collision their final velocities be v1 and v2 respectively.
Then, m1u1+ m2u2 = m2 v2 +m2v2
The law of conservation of momentum stands of much importance in many other examples like bullet fired from gun, games like carom and billiards. The knowledge of this law is inbuilt in every sensible brain before it was articulated, which shows the precision shown by warriors using bow and arrows.